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Dimitre Onciul and Gheorghe I. Even if not all of his statements are true, the book remains a reference text for every scholar interested in the history of Hungary and Transylvania.

Alba-Iulia, the residence of the bishop, is not mentioned in GH, as well as southern and eastern Transylvania.

Hungarian History in the Ninth Century. Glad accepted to surrender the fortress. In a textbook of Romanian history, for example, the creation of the first Romanian social organizations in the fourteenth century was given only seven lines.

The idea that Hungarians descended from Huns comes from Western writings, not from an internal tradition. The west- ern sources that mention the Hungarian incursion in Moravia and Pannonia presented with many details the fights of Svatopluk with the Hungarians in the last decades of the 9th century.

Beginning with the records concerning the Goths, Maior maintained that Dacia was reconquered by Constantine the Great aboutalthough, as is known, in Constantine’s times merely a few bridgeheads and towns along the northern shore of the lower Danube, as well as the southern part of Oltenia, were under the domination of the Eastern Roman Empire.

It is not sure whether Gyula was his real name or not.

Demystifying Gelou

Many similar descriptions followed in the fifteenth century. The tradition was invent- ed by the medieval writers, who needed an explanation for the exis- tence and origin of the Romanian shepherds in Hungary.

The text continues by telling how this territory was con- quered by the Goths and Gepids. First of all, Nicolae Iorga was criticized.

Demystifying Gelou

The Hungarian schol- ar considered that the presence of the Romanians in GH shows that the Anonymous Notary created a fictitious history by trans- plantating contemporary facts in the time of Arpad. T he Muntenian Chroniclers. Needless to say, most Romanian historians subscribe to this view.


Most of the time, Anonymus described successful offensive attacks, in which the ancestors of his contemporary Hungarian lords fought bravely and, in several cases, won the estates owned by these lords. Maior, however, studied several historical records in search of references to Romans or Romanians.

The chronicle increased the members of the Gyula family with the same name to three. At the same time, interest also increased in research of modern languages, and many grammars were written.

Since none of these names has any meaning in Romanian, it results that they were created when the Slavs were not yet assimilated.

The legend of the pri- mary penetration in Transylvania has no archaeological support. Because no sabres were found, the date can be placed after the middle of the 10th century. The population of the Bihar area was, according to GestaChazar; Duke Menumorout who ruled there said about himself that he had “a Bulgarian heart. There are no objects that could indicate the begin- ning of the fortress in the 9th century.

This continuity consisted of: The Gepids were later defeated by the Ostrogothic Italian kingdom inand Pannonia Secunda including Sirmium entered under Ostrogothic domination. The Keszthely culture can be ascribed to a mixture of Roman natives and prison- ers taken by the Avars from the Byzantine Empire, who lived under the Avarian domination. They conquered it, killing many Romans. One of the dwellings H. Another difference between Transylvania and the principalities is the fact that in Wallachia and Moldavia the main supporters of nationalism were the boyars, the upper aristocracy, while in Transylvania it was a small group of intellectuals.

The problem is that this site was only a refuge place that cannot be considered the residence of a ruler. Costin did not reflect much on the details and implications of the theory of continuous existence of the Romans in Dacia but considered this, as had his sources, a matter of fact that did not need to be proven.

A short passage in this chronicle mentions Slavs, Vlachs, and Hungarians in the Carpathian Basin at the end of the ninth century: A Romanian scholar, Alexandru Philippide,5 emphasized the role of these geo- graphic and cultural circumstances in the emergence of not one, but two Romance languages Romanian and Dalmatian within Oriental Romania, whose divergent evolution was enhanced in by the dividing line between the Roman Empires established pre- cisely in the less Romanized central region.


Our opinion is based on the fact that the Romani were not men- tioned in the enumeration of the peoples from Pannonia inserted in c. This was later so done, for the posterity of Tuhutum up to the time of the holy King Stephen held the land of Transylvania and would have held it longer, had the younger Gyula with his two sons, Bolya and Bonyha, wished to be Christians and not always opposed the holy king, as will be said in the following.

Thus, the inhabitants of the area built, upon orders, gates of stone, and erected, from felled trees, great boundary-dams at the frontier of the country [p.

The destruction of phase I could be linked with the second Hungarian conquestbut its beginning remains unknown. This is repeatedly shown by critical analyses of the texts.

When their leader Gelou saw this, he prepared, together with a few of his people, to flee in order to save his life.

There was a reaction against this nationalist-romantic way of writing history toward the end of the nineteenth century. As late as the fourteenth century, hugnarorum Vlachs still played an important political role and were instrumental in bringing Bulgarian Czar Michael III Sisman in to the throne.

In contrast to the arguments used by Bishop Inochenjie Klein, the authors now had the opportunity to apply a new roamna source, published inthe Gesta Hungarorum of the anonymous notary of King Bela III.